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Topic: Systems Theory: GIGO
Subject: Healthcare Sciences and Medicine
Paper type: Essay (Any Type)
Style: APA
Cost: $25
Number of soruces: 6


Systems and the Change Process: GIGO: (5 Pages)


      Question(s)/Issues Begin Addressed: Garbage in Garbage out what is it and why is it important to systems theory?

a.       William (2010) defines the concept of GIGO or “garbage in, garbage out” and defines it as, “processing system requires purposefully structured input data, subjected to scrupulous quality control, to produce useful results.

a.       of GIGO that are the gateway to trusted information from systems in healthcare

b.      Sukumar provides important insight on the importance of data put in and the impact it has on the output received by assessing three areas of quality data (2015).

a.       The lifecycle of data, issues due to errors or inaccurate data input, sources of the data, and the purpose of the collection of that data contribute to the quality of data provided.

                                                                                                  i.      When high quality data is put into a system you can expect quality output. When garbage is input then the output received will also be garbage.

                                                                                                ii.      Information is only as good as the person putting it in and the system delivering it.

c.       How do these systems get along with their users?

a.       One study shows only 55% of health care users like their current system and how is displays data and 76% feel like they are able to use or navigate their current system effectively (Grace et al, 2013).

                                                                                                  i.      IT systems are meant to compliment healthcare providers not become an obstacle.

                                                                                                ii.      When healthcare workers struggle to use their current systems in can result in GIGO.

d.      System vs human approach to care

a.       Systems have played a large role in healthcare and patient care over the past few years and it is growing constantly. This has led to many studies and articles that compare and contract technology-centered care versus the human-centered approach.

b.      GIGO is where systems and humans come together and when this effective occurs, it results in providing quality care to patients.

e.       Current Policy and initiatives in healthcare informatics

a.       Project Heathdesign promote policy changes and development when it comes to healthcare and technology.

b.      Center of Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Office of National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) have focused their efforts on improving HIT tools and being advocates for health care workers to ensure patient and healthcare providers have voices when it comes to health policies related to information technology (Koliner & Brennan, 2013).







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Through Policy. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 31(5), 205–207. Retrieved



William, M. (2010). Annals Of Emergency Medicine: Electronic Health Records: Promises

and Realities: Part III: Information Privacy and Accuracy: Zero and GIGO Won’t Do. Retrieved from:


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care", International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, Vol. 28 No. 6, pp. 621-634.



GIGO, also referred to as garbage in garbage out, is an example of the system theory concept. It converts well-structured input data to useful results through the use of scrupulous quality control (Williams, 2010). The garbage in garbage out concept is extensively applied in healthcare as a means of correcting flawed processes resulting from the use of lousy data through machine learning technologies. A critical step in the use of GIGO is the labeling and sorting of numerous types of information through controlled 'ontologies'/vocabularies that employ comprehensive representations of biological facts. A lot is still to be adopted in the application of controlled ontologies to make effective use of the technologies used in the incorporation of large quantities of information into the healthcare practice....
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